About BioGenex

BioGenex provides a “Total Solution” for slide-based cell and tissue analysis to accelerate clinical diagnostics and drug discovery development. We have developed the total walk-away, industrial-scale automated systems to streamline and standardize an array of processes for cell and tissue testing in immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH), Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), special stains.

Our products include more than 400 antibodies (monoclonal and polyclonal) for various cancer panels, highly sensitive detection kits, automated systems, mRNA, miRNA, and FISH probes, ancillary reagents, and consumables. We accommodate diverse laboratory needs with an array of clinical and research automation platforms that meet global quality standards (ISO 13485 & ISO 9001), are approved by the FDA and CE-marked. BioGenex is a global market leader in molecular pathology providing customer-centric solutions for complete automation of cell and tissue staining. Through its cutting-edge and patented technologies, the company has transformed the practice of slide-based staining in many molecular pathology laboratories.

microRNA (miRNA) – Introduction

miRNA in situ hybridization for Cancer Precision Medicine: Role in pharmacogenomics, tumor grading, staging, differentiation, and cancers of unknown primary

Since their discovery, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as crucial regulators of important cellular functions. The biogenesis of miRNA follows a complex path through a number of precursor forms resulting in mature, small, noncoding, single-stranded RNAs that are typically 20 to 40 nucleotides in length. Mature miRNA binds to a specific target sequence within a mRNA effecting post-translational gene regulation of cellular processes such as development, differentiation, proliferation, metabolism, and apoptosis. Dysregulated cell signaling in many tumor types results in upregulation or downregulation of various miRNAs. These microRNAs function either as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. This dynamic role of miRNAs within various cell types gives them the potential to serve as promising biomarkers in diagnostic, prognostic and targeted therapy practices.

A major challenge in clinical diagnostics is to distinguish cancer types with poor differentiation. Poorly differentiated tumors exhibit very aggressive behavior and are difficult to treat due to poor prognosis. Many tumors are difficult to diagnose early on due to late-onset symptoms, overlapping immunohistochemical profiles, and indistinguishable histological characteristics. Also, the uncertainties surrounding the diagnosis of cancers of unknown primary (CUPs) can lead to significant psychosocial distress for both the patient and family. CUPs are metastatic tumors for which no primary site has been identified, accounting for 3–5% of all diagnosed cancers. The inability to identify the tissue of origin in CUP patients creates diagnostic challenges because the primary site of cancer determines the treatment choices and overall prognosis. However, increasing understanding of molecular alterations underlying carcinogenesis and cancer has created opportunities to use miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic indicators. In the era of precision medicine, it is essential to identify novel diagnostic biomarkers to improve the management of cancer treatment and increased patient care.

MicroRNAs are multifaceted and can be used for differentiation of malignant and benign tumors, early-stage cancer detection marker, identification of cancer of unknown primary (CUP), and differentiation of cancer subtypes. miRNA expression profiles are also capable of grading, staging of cancer subtypes, and classifying undifferentiated and poorly differentiated tumors.

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